MOOSE AND FOREST PROBLEMS IN RUSSIA
This article presents an analysis of the moose–forest relationship in Russia characterized by utilization of land by humans and its consequences for moose and the forest. It provide a general overview of the research approaches regarding Russia’s damaged forests by moose. In the early 1950s, the moose population increased sharply, primarily due to enlargement of the cutover area and the ensuing increased forage resource. Devastation to pine and oak are emphasized amid a backdrop of damage to silviculture that cost millions of rubles. Other northern countries were undergoing similar destruction by moose to their forests. Three main research approaches are distinguished: determination of the damage by moose to stands, estimation of the effects of moose on the structure of forest phytocenoses, and the effects of moose on the productivity of particular plant species and forest phytocenoses. This well documented article correlates various moose population densities with specific effects on different ecosystems and emphasizes the fact that trophic activity of moose is one of several factors affecting the structure and succession of forest phytocenoses of various natural zones.