MOOSE DISTRIBUTION RELATIVE TO HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN A NATIONAL PARK
The potential influence of human development on distribution of moose (Alces alces) within Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska, was investigated during May-September 1995-1997. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to evaluate seasonal habitat use and distances to the park road and developed areas. Moose exhibited avoidance of spruce habitat during summer and spruce, shrub, and deciduous habitats during autumn. Results from univariate analyses indicated moose were closer to the park road than expected during summer and autumn further than expected from developed areas during autumn. However, multivariate logistic regression models including habitat types revealed that distances moose were located from roads were similar to expected during each season. Logistic regression models also indicated that moose were further from developed areas in autumn. Moose movement away from developed areas during autumn was likely because developed areas were located predominantly (69%) in forest and shrub habitats; moose appeared to select more open areas in autumn for rutting activities. Distribution of moose did not appear strongly influenced by human development. That moose did not overall avoid the park road or developed areas appears a consequence of habituation (i.e., indifference) to human activity from no positive or negative reinforcement.
How to Cite
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.