REPRODUCTIVE LIFE HISTORY AND FERTILITY OF MOOSE IN NORTH ASIA
We studies reproduction and fertility of moose (Alces alces) in North Asia from 1976 to 1990. Aerial moose surveys were conducted to determine moose population demographics, breeding seasons, breeding group composition, habitat use, calf survival, and frequency of twinning. Moose were also observed from the ground and we investigated fertility using harvested animals. Breeding seasons occurred from mid-September through early October throughout the study area. Habitat types used by moose included poplar (Populus spp.) - Chosenia forest, sparse larch (Tamarisk) forest, and willow (Salix spp.)/alder (Alnus spp.) forest. Aggressive interactions between bulls were more frequent at higher populations densities and when females were associated with > 1 bull. The most frequently observed breeding groups were male:female pairs and 1 male:2 females. Frequency of twinning was 23.8%. Our data were consistent with previous research that documented increased fertility with decreasing latitude. North Asian moose are a species with limited polygamy that can be displayed at varying degrees depending on population status, sex ratios, and other factors.
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